Tuesday, May 21, 2013
By Jacob Stockinger The Ear recently wondered about the relative silence and quiet of the young pianist Yuja Wang . No more. Wang has own more than her fair share of rave reviews and Grammy nominations for her intense and virtuosic playing. But she has also sparked controversies with her sexy and minimalist fashion that some people deem inappropriate concert attire that distracts from the music-making. Witness Wang’s performances in the Hollywood Bowl of Rachmaninoff ’s man-eating Piano Concerto No. 3 . Here are photos and also a link to another post I did about Wang — you can find many more about Yuja Wang by using the search engine on The Ear blog site –that drew a lot of responses and comments from readers: http://welltempered.wordpress.com/2011/08/17/classical-music-poll-was-yuja-wang’s-concert-skirt-too-short-what-is-inappropriate-concert-attire-for-a-performer-male-or-female/ But last week New York Times critic Zachary Woolfe (below) found Wang’s controversial attire to go beyond marketing and hype to be an integral part of the effect of her terrific recital — a true “performance,” Woolfe says, in part precisely because of her attire . It was in Carnegie Hall and featured big and sexy post-Romantic works by Rachmaninoff, Scriabin, Ravel , plus Chopin and other composers including Lowell Liebermann . (At bottom is a YouTube video of some shorter Scriabin works that Wang performed in Santa Fe.) Here is a link to Woolfe’s review: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/18/arts/music/yuja-wang-at-carnegie-hall.html?_r=0 The Ear also thinks that Yuja Wang’s taste in fashion not only helps her with PR and promotion or publicity, but also serves as a mirror of or natural accompaniment to her high-powered way of playing. She surely is a major pianist for a new century. (Below is another photo, by Ruby Washington of The New York Times, of Wang wearing a long black gown with a thigh-high slit for her Carnegie Hall debut, which also won a rave review from the Times’ senior music critic Anthony Tommasini . What do you think of Woolfe’s point, his linking the fashion and the music? Are you convinced? The Ear wants to hear.
5/14/13 Chopin on Period Instruments +1CD Chopin Nocturnes II on Erard, by Bart van Oort 5/12/13 Chopin on Period Instruments +1CD Chopin Mazurkas II on Pleyel, by Ton de Groot 5/12/13 Darmstadt Feldman & Carter +3 Carter 5 Quartets by Pacifica Quartet and Feldman For Philip Guston (in 4CDs) 5/12/13 J.G. Eckard - Sonates et menuet - Schoonderwoerd +1CD of Schobert Piano Sonatas Op. 14 (Brigitte Haudebourg) 5/9/13 Darmstadt Boulez +1CD Stockhausen Klavierstücke I-XI by Aloys Kontarsky & the Composer (for Mikrophonie I & II) 5/9/13 Bruckner +1CD Klee's 9th 5/9/13 Darmstadt Boulez +1CD Boulez Domaines, Masson, already posted on LP transfer, now available as CD Rip by BZ 5/6/13 Darmstadt 'The Venetians' +1HQDDL Nono's Prometeo Suite (C. Abbado, 2005) 5/6/13 Bruckner +8CDs Sinopoli's 5th & 8th, Abbado's 4th & 5th, Boulez 8th, Talmi 9th + String Quintet 5/5/13 Hindemith +3CDs Das Marienleben (A. Kupper) and 2 Ludus Tonalis (E. Aldwell and S. Bruhn) 5/3/13 Mendelssohn Chamber Music 1CD added of Mendelssohn & Gade Octets - L'Archibudelli 4/28/13 Easter Passion Music +2 CD's Haydn Seven Last Words - Lindsay and Borodin string quartets 4/26/13 Neefe- Klaviersonaten Vol. 1 & 2 Links added for Volume No. 2 (Performed on a Steinway Concert grand) 4/22/13 Boccherini: String Quartets & String Trios Links added for "Boccherini Quartets with the Apponyi-Quartett" 4/16/13 Boccherini: String Quartets & String Trios Links added for "Boccherni en Boadilla" 4/10/13 SPANISH CLASSICAL MUSIC: VOCAL WORKS Links added for "El mondo al revés" 4/10/13 BOCCHERINI Links added for new scans of Boccherini Trios Op. 54 4/6/2013 STRAVINSKY +1CD Concerto for 2 Pianos and Bartok's Sonata for 2 Pianos & Perc. by Richter & Lobanov 4/6/2013 DARMSTADT #1 +1CD Dallapiccola by James Ehnes and Gianandrea Noseda 3/29/2013 KURT WEILL +2CD: Lieder und Kantaten im Exil - Hanns Eisler 3/27/2013 DES HORIZONS #2 +6CDs: Debussy & Ravel Mélodies by Madeleine Grey, Y. Nara and E. Ameling + Ravel Orch. 3/19/2013 RACHMANINOV #2 +3CDs: Pizarro's 3rd, Ozolins' 4th and Rhapsody, Grimaud's 2nd Concerto. 3/19/2013 DES HORIZONS #2 +2CDs: Ravel Concertos with Philip Fowke and Piano Music with Joaquín Achúcarro 3/19/2013 SECOND VIENNESE SCHOOL #5 + 1CD Schoenberg's Serenade & Chamber Sym. 1 at Marlboro Music Festival 3/18/2013 RACHMANINOV #2 +2CDs: Lang & Temirkanov's 3rd C.to and V. Jurowski's Symphonic Dances. 3/14/2013 DES HORIZONS #2 + 6CDs and 1LP: including Franck Organ Music by Guillou and Ravel's Piano Music by Simon 2/21/2013 PROKOFIEV VOL. 2 +1LP: The String Quartets by Sequoia String Quartet in 1983 2/14/2013 SPANISH SCHOOL +1CD and 7LPs: Rodrigo's Aranjuez by Segre and Noseda, Turina, Falla and Monstalvatge 2/10/2013 SPANISH SCHOOL +2CDs: Mompou's Piano album by Adolf Pla and Falla Retablo de Maese Pedro by Argenta 2/7/2013 STRAVINSKY +1CD Riccardo Muti's Rite of Spring in Philadelphia 1979 2/7/2013 HINDEMITH +2CDs Choral Works Danish Radio National Choir/Choral Works Rundfunkchor Berlin 2/7/2013 SPANISH SCHOOL +5CDs Mompou's Musica callada/Spanish Love Songs Lorraine Hunt Lieberson etc 2/3/2013 DEBUSSY +1CD Dietrich-Fischer Dieskau's Debussy CD for Claves (1989). 2/2/2013 STRAVINSKY +3CDBOX Boulez-Stravinsky, containing only some materials previously posted) 1/2/2013 STRAVINSKY +3CDs: Salonen's Sacre, Ozawa's early CSO Sacre; Ancerl's Oedipus; Shaw's Psalms
By Jacob Stockinger Names usually tell the story, so it is only natural that we tend to think of the Wisconsin Youth Symphony Orchestras for the large ensembles. But the fact is that talented and committed student players in the large ensembles also break up and perform great chamber music in much smaller groups. So, here is a reminder of the WYSO concerts by the Youth Orchestra and the Philharmonia that will take place today, Sunday, May 19, at 1:30 and 4 p.m., respectively, in Mills Hall on the UW-Madison campus. (Tickets are $10 for adults, $5 for students.) (The Philharmonia concert at 4 p.m. also marks the retirement of conductor Tom Buchhauser after 30 years with WYSO. Here is a link to his interview on this blog: http://welltempered.wordpress.com/2013/05/14/classical-music-this-weekend-conductor-thomas-buchhauser-will-retire-after-30-years-with-the-wisconsin-symphony-orchestras-which-presents-its-annual-bolz-family-spring-concerts-this-saturday-and-sun/ I offer this photo essay about WYSO chamber music concerts that took place last weekend in the smaller Morphy Recital Hall. These great photos come to The Ear via blog fan and talented WYSO performer (violinist and pianist) Isabella Wu (below), who 7th-grader sister Audriana Wu will perform a movement from a piano concerto with the Philharmonia. Photo credit goes to Isabella’s dad, Cheng-Wei Wu, who is a photographer for WYSO. His work strikes The Ear as typical of the deep parental support and pride that WYSO students and WYSO itself enjoy. Isabella Wu writes: “I should, perhaps, introduce myself first: I will be an incoming freshman at Memorial High School in Madison next year. “I am a classical pianist and violinist, and have played in WYSO for four years now. You may remember me from your earlier blog two years ago on the MSO Fall Concerts. “I performed in the first group of the 3:30 p.m. recital. My piano trio performed the 1st movement of Mendelssohn’s Piano Trio in D minor (at bottom with superstar pianist Lang Lang in a YouTube video) that was heard on Wisconsin Public Radio ’s “The Midday” earlier this week. (There is a gorgeous cello solo in the opening that I love to sing!) Unfortunately, my dad was unable to catch any photos of my group. “Here IDs for the photos: Below are: Isabelle Krier and Charlie Morgan, violins, Tatiana Tandias, cello Below are: Steven Liu, Ani Sivakumar and Mary Schroeder, violins, Majestica Lor and Simone Hendrix, cellos Below are: Tina Cheng, Gwen Pyeatt and Megan Wilhelmi, violins Below are: Jules Eicher and Erik Nuenninghoff, violins, Tony Holmes, viola, Sam Seery, cello Below are: Sarah DiPiazza, Monica Lueck and Steven Bilke, clarinets Below are: Maynie Bradley and Sierra Herale, violins, Kayla Whip, cello, Antonia Rohlfing, piano I am currently learning the Chopin Scherzo No.1 ; there is a very beautiful middle section based on the Polish tune “Lulajze Jezuniu.” Best wishes and thank you, Isabella Wu And thank you Isabella and all the other performers who are pictured and who are not pictured, and who will perform today to, I hope, full houses.
The Miami International Piano Festival’s Discovery Series continued Friday night with a recital by Wolfram Schmitt-Leonardy at the Colony Theater in Miami Beach. While Chopin’s 24... [[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]
Rada Bukhman, a Vancouver-based piano teacher with native Russian roots, has produced a 212-page soft cover volume that entices with its interspersed selections of compositions at various learning levels. The text offers a variety of fascinating topics, “Developing Initial Musical Skills: on the Nature and Development of a Musical Ear, on Rhythm, Preparatory Stage, Sight-Reading” and continues with “The Means of Expression in Performance: Sound production, Dynamics, the Art of Phrasing,” etc. among a plethora of compelling instructional headings that follow in a well-organized sequence. Rather than retread specific areas covered by Ms. Bukhman in her volume, I asked her to respond to a series of inquiries that arose from my exploration of her book. SK (Shirley Kirsten): Is there a Russian School of Piano Playing, and if so, what exactly is it? Nikolai Lugansky, a student of Tatiana Nikolayeva, for example, said the following when asked the same question: “It is difficult to describe, but the piano is not a knocking instrument (perhaps he meant percussive), and you must always try to play a melody as if you were emulating the human voice.” Rada Bukhman: Before answering your question, I would like to define the meaning of “Russian School of Piano Playing.” Many musicians stress the word “playing,” while for me, it is the “school” that’s important. There is no such thing as Russian piano playing, but there is definitely the SCHOOL. The singing tone cannot be related to Russians only. The majority of Old Russian masters who impress us with their singing tone have a Western European background. Russia developed slowly: the Rubinstein brothers opened their music conservatories in Moscow and Saint Petersburg only in the second part of the 19th century. By that time Europe produced quite an impressive number of amazing pianists- Talberg, Chopin, Liszt, Busoni, Clara Schumann, Brahms. While I don’t believe there exists a Russian way of playing, I do recognize the Russian School of Piano teaching – the method historically proven by raising generations of accomplished musicians. I would like to avoid over-generalizing by implying that all Russian teachers are excellent or that only Russian teachers are great. However, in Russia there was a very well-defined organizational structure and pedagogical strategy, both aimed at children. This is something I miss in North America. In regular Russian music schools children had quite a few courses additional to specialty instrument study. These included solfeggio, theory, and music literature. Students were expected to participate in a choir and to play in the orchestra. The schools provided general musical education on a very high level. Many of these graduates continued professional studies in musical colleges. There were also special music schools meant for gifted children, which Lugansky himself had attended. Teachers in those schools were both exceptional musicians and great performers. Therefore, the students were taught refined musical taste and a high level of musical understanding. These teachers had developed the core of the method that we now call the “Russian Piano School.” One of the most important features of the School is the development of the piano apparatus based on a serious foundation of musical and medical knowledge. It is a well-known fact that many pianists suffer from all kinds of professional traumas due to inappropriate training in childhood. It is vital, therefore, to understand how our body functions. It’s also important to know which movement best suits the desired articulation, particular tone…. Then instead of hours of repetitive practicing one can achieve quality results much faster and be injury-free. The standard set in schools for gifted children was extremely high. It demanded the embrace of art as a whole. The best Russian teachers expected children to explore music, visual art, and literature. This is another major feature of the Russian School. The teachers were also unique, and worked day and night. I should mention that the only motivation they had was love for the students and for the music. I have read memories of a principal of one of those schools, where he shared his admiration for old teachers who voluntarily worked long hours and weekends. Nowadays music teachers have to be business-oriented; it makes the teaching process totally different. You would not imagine someone working additional hours with a private student unless paid extra. The same is the case in contemporary Russia. These extra lessons cost money, and the rate is not low. It’s ironic, but the terrible economic and political conditions in the Soviet Union motivated artists to work with greater enthusiasm, because the only sanctuary for real freedom and spiritual happiness was their art. Consequently, only during the first half of the 20th century had Russia produced an enormous amount of extraordinary musicians. SK: In the Russian tradition of teaching piano, what is the physical route to producing a legato (smooth and connected) singing tone? And what role does a supple wrist play in developing a molto cantabile. (very singable sound) Rada Bukhman: Legato is a more audible phenomenon than physical. It is sort of an illusion. First of all, one should be talented enough to imagine and to hear this type of sound internally. Another important thing is to control the sound. We often play legato using pedal for connection in situations when physical legato is impossible. It is crucial to build smooth dynamical change from sound to sound creating an illusion of legato. In the book I introduce the melodic exercises which aim to teach how to play legato with dynamic development. It motivates children to control the decay of each sound and initiate conscious transfer from one sound to the next. Physical legato definitely is a very important skill and it depends on proper use of pianistic apparatus. The singing sound physically depends on proper touch of the fingertip and on a masterful distribution of weight of the arms on fingers, while moving from key to key. The wrist helps our fingers to reach the most desirable position on the keyboard. Wrist is a bridge connecting the forearm with the hand, and it contributes to a greater mobility of the hand. It helps the hand to change positions. The wrist can work as a resisting force while we are playing heavy and loud, softening the tone. Thus the wrist should be flexible but never loose. Excessive movements of the wrist may result in a professional injury; this is something to keep in mind. SK: I notice that in one portion of your book you recommended inking a dot on the fleshy part of a student’s fingers to remind him or her of where to make contact with the key. Does this allow flexibility as far as a deep in the key approach, with longer, less rounded fingers in Largo or Adagio passages? Daniil Trifonov mentioned in an interview that he often plays with “flat fingers.” Rada Bukhman: Inking a dot is not my invention; this was advice given by the legendary teacher Anna Artobolevskaya. A skillful performer instinctively flattens his or her fingers for a variety of reasons. Sometimes in fast tempo as well, playing, for example, on black keys. While the finger is flattened, the distal phalanx is still a bit curved allowing touch of a key with a fingertip. In the case of legato, the larger part of the flesh is involved. Why it is essential to teach children to touch with a tip or in other words, to grab a key with a tip? Because this skill is not innate to us. This skill has to be nurtured, sometimes for years. Professor Mikhail Voskresensky, who has been teaching for many decades in the Moscow conservatory, once said to me: you should feel as if you’re holding the keyboard with your fingertips. In other words, one should imagine that the grip of the keys should prevent keyboard from falling on the floor. When this feeling is established, one is free to experiment with colors of tone. SK: What is the value of playing detached notes, before exposing a student to legato playing? Rada Bukhman: Legato is the most complex skill. Playing non-legato establishes the foundation for movement and touch. It motivates to play with a full arm, realizing the unity of the different parts of the piano apparatus; it teaches to immerse the finger to the end of the key bed. In my book you will find exercises for circular movements of the arm, necessary for establishing the habit of transferring the hand comfortably. SK: Your teacher antecedents go back to Heinrich Neuhaus who taught Richter and Gilels. What was the main dimension of his teaching that was passed down to you? Rada Bukhman: I am still learning from my former Moscow teacher, examining her video recordings. Richter and Gilels are not very good examples of Neuhaus’s art of pedagogy because they are geniuses, not to mention that Gilels can hardly be considered a pupil of Neuhaus. My teacher, Lidija Phikhtengoltz, who was student of Neuhaus from the age of 14, explores his musical principles more obviously. She was always touched following her performances when somebody would say that it is apparent that her teacher was Henry. She has a refined musical taste, expressive natural phrasing, and a deep understanding of a composer’s language. Pay attention to her logical gestures (there are no unnecessary movements). When she was performing, it was always sincere and truthful. From her I learned appreciation for the quality of the sound and the importance of musical taste. SK: One of the strengths of your book resides in its inclusion of repertoire that you recommend with tie-ins to your whole technical/musical approach to teaching. Were these pieces you were given to study as part of your training in Russia? Rada Bukhman: I was searching for repertoire in all possible internet libraries; additionally I wanted to incorporate the material which would be new for teachers and students. I was using the Nikolaev book in my childhood, which is translated into English. However, I found it impossible to use most of its content. I managed to combine well-known music like the selections from Children’s cycles by Tchaikovsky, Schumann, Maykapar with the music that has never been published before in North America. For example, my book includes pieces by Russian prominent composers such as Sviridov and Lokshin. For the part of the book called “Development of Piano Apparatus” I was searching for pieces that would correspond to each technique. SK: Could you describe the specific teachers who most influenced you and why? Rada Bukhman: My learning experience is a combination of skills I acquired from very different but unique musicians. All of them contributed to my musical development tremendously. However I feel that teaching young musicians continuously makes me a better musician and performer. SK: How is your book set apart from other piano instructional materials on the market? Rada Bukhman: My book is both an exploration of the method and repertoire. The method is a pedagogical tool for teachers interested in learning the “Russian way” of building the piano apparatus. I offer an explanation of the nature of pianistic movements as well as a strategy to follow while working with beginners. I explain in detail the order of techniques introduced and how all exercises have to be performed, from an audible and physical perspective. By using some of the exercises one can help more advanced students who suffer from inappropriate initial training. Additionally, I touch on every aspect of musical development of the child. That makes my book different from other children’s piano methods. (I offer free consultations via Skype to new owners of my book who would like to have more detailed explanation of the book’s themes) LINKS: AMAZON: DISCOVERING COLOR BEHIND THE KEYS: The Essence of the Russian School of Piano Playing http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps&field-keywords=Rada+Bukhman RADA BUKHMAN’S YOU TUBE CHANNEL with playing samples of her students http://www.youtube.com/user/rbukhman
In three successive days our city witnessed piano recitals of the highest level: the marvelous audacity of Dejan Lazic in two sessions for the Mozarteum with identical programme at the Colón, and a Romantic combination of Chopin and Rachmaninov offered with splendid command by Irina Dichkovskaia in a Mozarteum Midday Concert at the Gran Rex. If I give pride of place to Lazic it is because the particular combination of scores he offered showed him to be not only world-class in purely technical terms but because it showed an inquisitive intellect such as few pianists have (Andras Schiff comes to mind). I certainly congratulate the Mozarteum in accepting Lazic´s proposal, for neither the institution nor the artist opted for the easy way of giving us recognised masterpieces of surefire success in the right hands. Of course Lazic can play admirably a conventional programme that would fire the spirit of a mainstream audience. However, he had the courage and the intelligence to choose admirable music that most people have never heard, with the possible exception of a couple of Domenico Scarlatti Sonatas. And he wanted the audience to try to appreciate the hidden liens between Twentieth- and Eighteenth-Century composers. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach is too neglected considering his importance. The second of the children borne to Johann Sebastian by Maria Barbara, CPE not only was the guardian of JSBach´s music, but himself went during his rather long life (1714-88) from the High Baroque to "Sturm und Drang" Classicism. No one represents better the triumphal genius of straddling two momentous epochs of the History of Music and being representative of both. Yet his music is rarely heard, except for some symphonies and concerti and his Magnificat. Exceptionally subtle and innovative in his harmony, as well as a specialist of the "Affektenlehre" ("Theory of the Affects"), his music is an ideal blend of sense and sensibility. Lazic, born in Zagreb (Croatia), but an artistic result of Salzburg´s Mozarteum, has the knack of making music written for the harpsichord sounding completely natural for the piano. He chose a slow-fast Fantasy in D, Wq 117 Nº 14 (Wq refers to the catalog organised by Alfred Wotquenne in 1905), "La Boehmer" in D, Wq 117 Nº 26 (an Allegro) and Sonata in D minor, Wq 69, made up of a slow first movement and a long Theme with variations. Fascinating music played with crystalline, note-perfect command. Apparently Benjamin Britten´s "Holiday Diary", Op.5, is one of his few piano scores (others: a Nocturne and Five Waltzes); curious, because he was a fine pianist. An early work written when he was 21, this suite has four fragments: a rather turbulent "Early Morning Bathe", an ABA "Sailing" (A is calm, B is intense), a brilliant "Fun Fair" and a contemplative "Nocturne". It was stunningly played by Lazic and it may have been a premiere here (ditto por the CPE Bach pieces). After the interval a rather fantastic thing happened. Twice D. Scarlatti sonatas were followed by Béla Bartók creations, and again Lazic managed to make the harpsichord originals pianistic, and the Bartók pieces strong and pointed without ever pounding away. Out of the whole programme, only the "Pastoral Sonata" K.9 may be called a standard (K. stands for Ralph Kirkpatrick´s catalog, which superseded the old one by Alessandro Longo –L-). It was followed by K. 430 and K.135, in glittering, diamantine versions, followed by applause. But then came an astonishing experiment: there was no pause whatsoever (Lazic´s gestural stance, allowing just a few seconds of silence, made applause impossible) between Bartók, again Scarlatti, and Bartók for the ending. It reminded me of another astonishing fusion, when Christoph Von Dohnányi conducted Wagner and went on to Ligeti. Bartók´s "Six dances on Bulgarian rhythms" are the ending of his whole piano method, "Mikrokosmos", Vol. VI, Nos 148-53 ; endlessly imaginative transpositions of folklore transformed by a master who had done years of field work collecting songs and dances; the irregular Bulgarian rhythms add within the same measure, e.g., 2+2+2+3 beats. Then, D.Scarlatti´s K. 380, 420 and 82, another three wonderful binary "essercizi" (as he called them) out of an amazing 550 or so. Then, another possible premiere, the expressive Funeral March transcribed from Bartók´s symphonic poem "Kossuth", on the Hungarian hero of the failed Independence War (1848-9) of Hungary against Austria; Bartók´s first symphonic work. Finally, the "Three rondos on Slovak folk themes", irresistible pieces dated 1927, in lovely performances. Just one encore given to a too-cold audience (though a very silent one): an Istrian dance, hence Croatian. I´ll be much briefer about the Belarusian 33-year-old Irina Dichkovskaia, for here we were on much more familiar ground and there´s little to say in a particularised way. Indeed, everything was played with utmost professionalism, always faithful to the score, completely in command of very technical aspect, controlled yet expressive, capable of offering beautiful soft touches in a Chopin Nocturne, or to attack with fearful vigor some powerhouse Rachmaninov. From Chopin: the Fantasia Op.49, the Nocturne Nº 8, Op.27 Nº2 and the Second Scherzo, plus as encores the "Minute Waltz" and the Fantasia-Impromptu. From Rachmaninov: the thick and complex Étude-tableau Op.39 Nº5, three Preludes (the lyrical Op.23 Nº4, the powerful march-like Op.23 Nº5, and the most famnous of all, the Prelude Op.3 Nº2), the Melody Op.3 Nº 3, and the torrential "Moment musical" Op.16 Nº4. For Buenos Aires Herald
Frédéric François Chopin (22 February 1810 / 1 March - 17 October 1849) was a Polish composer, virtuoso pianist, and music teacher, of French-Polish parentage. He was one of the great masters of Romantic music. Chopin is also known as "The poet of the Piano". Chopin was born in ?elazowa Wola, a village in the Duchy of Warsaw. A renowned child-prodigy pianist and composer, he grew up in Warsaw and completed his musical education there. Following the Russian suppression of the Polish November 1830 Uprising, Chopin settled in Paris as part of the Polish Great Emigration. He supported himself as a composer and piano teacher, giving few public performances. From 1837 to 1847 he carried on a relationship with the French woman writer George Sand. For most of his life, Chopin suffered from poor health; he died in Paris in 1849 at the age of 39. Most of Chopin's works involve the piano. They are technically demanding but emphasize nuance and expressive depth. Chopin invented the musical form known as the instrumental ballade and made major innovations to the piano sonata, mazurka, waltz, nocturne, polonaise, étude, impromptu and prélude.
Great composers of classical music